Ovarian cancer is known as a silent killer that’s because initial symptoms are mistaken as gastric issues and since ovaries are situated in the tummy the lady will notice the symptoms only when the disease has spread to other organs. About 20-25% of women with ovarian cancer have a hereditary tendency to develop the disease. When cancer cells originate from the ovary it is known as primary ovarian cancer. Sometimes, the cancer cells originate from different organs and fall on to the ovary and this is called secondary ovarian cancer (Krukenberg). Ovarian cancers are generally seen around the age of 50 years, but even younger women can be affected by ovarian cancer. When the disease is diagnosed early and treated, survival is better. The ovary has different layers and cells; hence there are several types of ovarian cancer depending on where the cells are arising. The common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial cancer. Ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary peritoneal cancer have a similar clinical presentation and have similar staging and treatment.
There are two ovaries situated on either side of the uterus. Ovaries are oval in shape and are attached to the uterus with the help of a ligament called Ovarian ligament.
The ovary has two main functions, one produces hormones and the other is it produces ovum every month. This ovum will be picked up by the fallopian tube and transferred to the uterus for fertilisation with the sperm.
Ovaries are situated in the lateral part of the pelvis called the ovarian fossa.